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2020.10.17 12:07 Majhul_101 France’s “Laïcité”, the Secular Fundamentalism at War with Multiculturalism
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OverviewFrance’s problem with multiculturalism is not a new phenomenon. Since the end of World War II, France has become one of the most ethnically diverse countries in Western Europe. The rapid growth of its multiculturalism started when France welcomed millions of immigrants mainly from its former colonies in North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and South-East Asia to take part in its post-war economic recovery.
Unlike many of its Western counterparts like the United States, Canada, or Australia, France has implemented a “color-blind” approach in dealing with multiculturalism. It means that the French government does not institute policies that target a particular ethnic group or race, but instead, it institutes policies that target a specific geographic area or social cluster in which they tend to be ethnically-clustered. In 1978, France enacted a law that made it illegal to collect data on race or ethnicity. The law makes it difficult to assess the cultural composition of French society. Experts believe that visible minority is estimated to be 14% of the French population versus 20% in the United States and 22% in Canada.
While France, officially, holds a color-blind stance with regards to its multicultural society, the truth of the matter is that its political leaders and citizens are not blind to the fact that race and ethnicity do matter. Anyone who says otherwise is not believable.
Given the color-blind approach and the lack of data on race or ethnicity, it is difficult to accurately comprehend how effective France has been in assessing and combatting racism. In May 2020, a French government spokesman of Senegalese origin, Sibeth Ndiaye, surprised the French government when she made the call to legalize ethnic statistics. Ndiaye pointed out that the absence of statistics makes it difficult for people to assess how prevalent racism is in France. The response from the economy minister Bruno Le Maire was that the call did not align with France’s idea of universalism and that the concept of a French person does not consider his or her race, ethnicity, or religion. In his address of racism, the minister resorted to the condemnation of discrimination in any shape or form. While these statements are nice noble words, it does not tell us much on the prevalence of racism in France and the government effectiveness in combating racism. So, what is the real situation of racism in France?
1- Racism in FranceIn 1997, the Economist did a study on racism in France. They found that about 48% of French citizens consider themselves to be racists coming in second place after Belgium. Among those who feel racist, 35% would vote for the far-right, 35% would vote for the mainstream right, and 28% would vote for the left. The study also found that most French citizens believe that there are too many Arabs than Blacks and that there are too many Blacks than Jews.
Source: The Economist
Fast forward 2013, the Washington Post conducted another research survey in which they found that between 20% and 30% of French do not prefer people of another race as their neighbors. Another study by Pew research center in 2016 showed that only 26% of French believe that diversity makes their country a better place to live in contrast to 33% in the UK and 58% in the US. These percentages show that in comparison to the US, Canada, and the UK, France is the least tolerant. It also reveals that racial and ethnic diversity is seen more as a problem in France than in the US, the UK, Canada, and Australia.
Sources: Pew Research Center and Washington Post
2- Politicization of Arabs, Immigrants, and IslamFor decades, immigration has been a subject of political debate in France. French Arab which constitute the largest ethnic minority in France, have been the most stigmatized community and have been subject to political debates across the political spectrum. After 9/11, the stigmatization has rapidly gravitated toward Muslims (practitioners of Islam) which a large percentage is of Arab origin.
In early October 2020, French President Emmanuel Macron said that Islam is in crisis all over the world and plans to defend France’s secular values against what he termed as “Islamist radicalism”.
The President’s comment is the latest example of mainstream politicians pandering to the far-right whose leader Marine Le Pen has seen her chances for winning the 2022 presidential election increased and is currently neck and neck with Macron.
President Macron’s predecessors across the political spectrum have also used these tactics in the past:
Source: The Guardian
Source: The Guardian
Source: France 24
According to Pew research, France has the largest Muslim community in Europe, representing 8.8% of the population. Yet, Muslims are often stigmatized in French political debates.
Source: Pew Research Center
To understand the place of Islam in France and how Arabs, Muslims, and Immigrants have been stigmatized across the political spectrum; it requires a need to understand three components: France’s secularism (laïcité), France’s history of colonialism and decolonization, and France’s history of anti-Semitism:
a- The French Revolution and the Birth of French Secularism (Laïcité)
For a very long time, France’s mainstream politics have had a deep suspicion of religion. A suspicion that dates back to the French Revolution. The French Revolution was a time in history when the population revolted against the Monarchy and the Church. For centuries, the Church had imposed its doctrine on society dictating every aspect of French lives. After the abolishment of the French monarchy, the new Republic began to marginalize the Catholic Church and all faiths from any participation and organization in public life. From that time onwards, the French State was born in direct opposition to the public display of religious organizations, religious faiths, religious symbols, and religious minorities.
In 1905, France enacted a law known as Laïcité, the French version of secularism. The 1905 law was founded on three main principles: the separation of Church and State, the supremacy of the State over religious institutions, and the neutrality of the State towards religion. In that regard, the French State guarantees the freedom of religion and the right of every French person to express one’s faith while respecting public order and institutions. The law does not recognize religious marriages and bans the display of religious symbols in public institutions.
This version of secularism explains in part the stigmatization of Muslims across the political spectrum.
b- France Colonial Past and Decolonization
In the 16th century, France established its first colony in Canada called New France at the time. A century later, France would colonize Africa and would take part in the slave trade of millions of Africans. The French colonization of North Africa (1830-1962) and the devastating Algerian Independence War (1954-1962) are factors that led to the presence of a major Arab community in France.
The Algerian war was France’s most violent decolonization. At the time, the French colony had the highest concentration of French citizens to the point it was given the status of “Department” (A French Province).
The Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962)
After World War II, the French economy was in tatters. The country was facing challenges to maintain its colonies worldwide. Soon after, France lost to its colony Vietnam which declared independence along with Laos and Cambodia, Algeria began declaring its independence. This event led France to wage a bitter colonial war against Algeria to maintain its largest colony. In 1962, France under Charles De Gaulle capitulated to Algeria which managed to gain its independence from France. Many French at the time saw De Gaulle's act as a betrayal to France and saw Algerians as the enemy to French integrity.
The Franco-Algerian war led to a massive emigration of Algerians to France, especially those who stood by France during the war. Immigration to France was not a new phenomenon at the time as privileged Algerians, Moroccans, Tunisians, Senegalese, Ivorians, and others (a majority of them being Muslims) had emigrated to France way before the conflict ever started. However, the war made it difficult for France to manage the massive wave of migration.
France's loss to Algeria would be a main factor that can explain the perception of native French on Arabs and Muslims. Initially, the negative public perception would focus on race and ethnicity targeting Arabs and Blacks, however as decades went by, especially after the 9/11 terrorist attack in New York, the focus would gradually gravitate towards religion targeting specifically Muslims and their faith (Islam). The figure below shows an increase in attacks against Muslims as they continue to face mistrust and violence in the secular country.
Source: The Huffington Post
France has had a long history of anti-Semitism and discrimination against the Jews. The persecution began in the 12th Century after the Second Crusade with French clergyman giving frequent anti-Semitic sermons and discriminative taxes.
It was not after the French Revolution under Napoleon that citizenship was granted to the Jews. However, the celebration of the newfound freedom would be short-lived, as Napoleon would introduce anti-Jewish measures that annulled, reduced, or postponed all debts with Jews causing near ruin to the Jewish community. Restrictions were also placed on Jews to force them to assimilate.
In the late 19th century, an upsurge of anti-Semitism took place with newspapers circulating anti-Semitic rhetoric (i.e. The 1886 anti-Semetic Best Seller book of Edouard Drumont’s La France Juive). Nearly four decades later, at the beginning of World War I, Jewish immigration and anti-semitic campaigns were halted because of the need of the united front against Germany.
In 1894, the infamous Dreyfus case made shockwaves when Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a French Jew accused of espionage for the Germans, was sentenced for life. The government chose to suppress the evidence proving his innocence until Emile Zola and Jean Jaures brought to light the conspiracy. Dreyfus was released after serving ten years. The incident pushed France to create the 1905 Laïcité law.
France played a major role during the Second World War, when the Vichy government under Marshal Pétain collaborated with the Nazis by taking part in the deportation of 80,000 Jews to Nazi concentration camps, the execution of 15,000 Jews, and the creation of anti-Jewish discrimination laws. It was not until 2010 that France’s highest judicial body revealed that Nazi officials did not force the French to betray their fellow citizens and that anti-Semitic persecution was carried out willingly.
Source: France 24
For decades, the French government denied their involvement. It was not until 1995 that France under Jacques Chirac admitted France’s guilt and role in the persecution and mass deportations of Jews. With the long years of denial, it took also a long time for the French government to apprehend and try French war criminals (Jean Leguay in 1979, Paul Touvier in 1994, Maurice Papon in 1997). Marshal Pétain was only charged with treason not war crimes and had his sentence was commuted from death to life imprisonment by General De-Gaulles. Most convicts were given amnesty a few years later.
Thousands of French war criminals and collaborators would escape prosecution such as Jacques de Bernonville and Jacques Ploncard d'Assac whose son would join the National Front (now National Rally).
These criminals would also join the Organisation Armée Secrète or OAS (meaning Secret Armed Organisation) which carried out terrorist attacks, including bombings and assassinations, in an attempt to prevent Algeria's independence from French colonial rule.
The National Rally has a collection of Hitler and Nazi collaborator admirers whose far-right ideology is still part of the party’s DNA today.
France’s far-right ideology has a long history which dates back to the French revolution. Thirty years after World War II, the far-right movement would publicly resurface in 1972 under the leadership of Jean Marie Le Pen, the founder of the 'Front National' (National Front) party. The National Front under Le Pen was notorious for making anti-Semitic statements with a derogatory fixation on France’s Jewish population.
In the late 1970’s, a surge of racist and anti-Semitic attacks were carried against the Jewish community with monuments and cemeteries being desecrated and restaurants and shops being vandalized. Anti-Semitism would continue to be a problem in the late 1980s and 1990s. Many Jews were concerned of the rise of the National Front in politics which espouses anti-immigration and anti-Semitic views.
Jean-Marie Le Pen would also frame the narrative of the rejection of North African Muslim immigrants and “The Arab”. In 2011, her daughter Marine Le Pen would later re-brand the party to the name ‘Rassemblement National’ (National Rally) to soften the party’s past image on anti-Semitism. Only this time, her party would rally under the banner of “Laïcité” to spread Islamophobic attacks.
While many French citizens decry National Rally’s anti-Semitic discourse, many remain silent on anti-Islam or anti-Arab narratives by dismissing them as a right to free speech.
The rise of the far-right discourse in France has led to an increase in hate crimes against Jews and Muslims. According to the National Consultative Commission on Human Rights, CNCDH, a French governmental organization, the number of acts and threats of anti-Semitism (plotted in green) and racism and xenophobia (plotted in blue) has been on the rise.
The upward trend of attacks also mirrors the rise of the National Rally which has been gaining popularity in key election battlegrounds. As a result, many Jews are pondering whether they should leave France. The trends show a growing exodus of Jews from France to Israel. France, home to the largest Jewish community in Europe, has seen the largest exodus of Jews for Israel in Western Europe.
3- The Rise of France’s Far RightFor the past decades, the far-right has seen a gradual increase in voters support. Since 2011, the Party under the leadership of Marine Le Pen would see a stellar rise. Marine Le Pen’s anti-immigrant, anti-Europe, and anti-Islam stance was able to win her 10 million voters.
After decades of a toxic reputation linked with anti-Semitism and xenophobia, Marine Le Pen took the reins from her father and adopted a strategy of toning down their xenophobic and anti-Semitic image. The tactic worked in the party’s favor.
The stellar rise of Le Pen marks the growing normalization of far-right support in France. The far-right party under the banner of defending the principle of “Laïcité” (French version of secularism) and French identity, was able to rally a growing number of voters against Muslims and their faith. The slogan Le Pen concocted was ‘No to Islamism’. The National Rally wanted to paint the picture of Islam as an enemy fundamentalist ideology rather than a religion. This emphasis on Islamism started with Marine Le Pen in 2010 and has become the focus of her rhetoric.
The popularity of the far-right sets a dangerous precedent as mainstream political parties are gradually failing in halting the National Rally from taking the presidency. Across the spectrum, some politicians are starting to adopt some of Le Pen’s talking points. They are regularly using the identity card for political gains.
During the 2016 Presidential campaigns, Former Conservative candidate Francois Fillion called for a ban on the full-body Islamic burkini swimming suit. Former socialist prime minister, Manuel Valls, and former right-wing president Nicholas Sarkozy rallied behind the mayors’ ban on burkini swimming suits. Sarkozy made a promise to extend the ban on the hijab in schools to universities and restrict access to benefits for women who violate the ban, an action that has been detrimental to the emancipation and integration of young Muslim women. Today, Macron is trying to brandish his tough-on-Islam credentials in a populist political environment.
The stigmatization of minorities in political debates shows the ugliness of French politics. The French media has also been guilty of taking part in the narrative where inflammatory and racist statements have also been published.
Illustrations of Media Racism
4- French Secularism: The Root Cause of France’s Intolerance towards multi-culturalismFrance is a country in crisis. The country’s secularism (French Laïcité) follows a doctrine that is fundamentalist and dogmatic, creating an environment of intolerance and lack of acceptance for other cultures. For a very long time, France has always wanted Assimilation and not Integration.
French secularism has been used as a political tool to target minorities and their faith. In the 1920s and 1930s, Polish and Italians immigrants were often targeted for practicing their Catholic faith and displaying their religious symbols in public.
In the aftermath of the Algerian war, the rejection of the North Africans was more of a rejection of their ethnicity rather than their religion. Over time, xenophobic attacks on French Arabs, Blacks, and other minorities eventually led to the 1983 March in protest against widespread racism, discrimination, and racial profiling and violence. For many young French of Arab descent (mostly of the second generation), the movement placed a greater emphasis on the acceptance of ethnic and cultural identity. The movement was advocacy for anti-racism, equality, political integration, social integration, and economic integration for minorities.
The 1983 March prompted President François Mitterrand to intervene in an attempt to diffuse the escalating movement. While the French authorities managed to diffuse the movement to the issue of race, it disregarded the demands for cultural recognition and socio-economic integration.
For decades, the government's lack of initiative to take minorities' demands seriously, compounded the frustrations of Franco-Arabs and other minorities. To add insult to injury, mainstream politicians have been politicizing their cultural identity and faith.
5- French Youth Radicalism: Decades of Marginalization in the MakingYears of constant stigmatization and exclusion of their cultural identity, ethnicity, and religion have driven French Arabs feeling very bitter towards their country France. But worse, it has pushed some French youths towards radicalism. While most French would attribute Islam as the cause of radicalism and violence, research has shown that the majority of Muslims staunchly oppose violence in the name of Islam (Pew Research Center).
The 1995 Paris metro bombings, the 2015 Charlie Hebdo attack, the 2015 Jewish Kosher Supermarket attack in Nice, and the 2015 mass shootings attacks on Stade de France, and other atrocious attacks are symptoms of France’s years of marginalization and intolerance towards its ethnic minorities giving birth to youth radicalism and terrorism. The increasing number of attacks paint a trouble picture.
According to a study on Terrorism, France holds the largest number of foreign fighters in western Europe. A 2016 report published by the International Centre for Counter-Terrorism (ICCT) estimates that over 900 French foreign fighters had traveled to Syria and Iraq between 2012 and 2015. Of this total, 75 percent had joined ISIS. The study paints a scary picture of a potential of 2000 radicalized French citizens that could be active in terrorist activities.
In contrast to France, the UK had about 750 foreign fighters who traveled abroad between 2011 and 2015. On the other hand, the US had far less with 200 US citizens and residents were convicted of terrorism-related activities between 2001 and 2013. About 250 Americans attempted to or successfully traveled to Syria and Iraq. While Canada had only 185 Canadian foreign fighters had traveled abroad.
The reason why France has more foreign fighters than its British and North-American counterparts is that the perceived better social, economic, and political integration of Muslims and other minorities in North American communities as compared to France.
Source: Pew Research Center
According to Pew Research Center, most Muslims in France feel very French however they feel that the native French don’t see them as French because of their ethnicity. The study also found that French Muslims are somewhat more likely than those in other Western countries to report that they have had experienced xenophobic and racist attacks with younger Muslims more likely to report a bad experience.
The Legatum Prosperity Index is an index that measures a country's level of individual freedom. The index ranks countries based on access to legal rights; freedom of speech and religion; and social tolerance, notably towards immigrants and ethnic minorities. The ranking shows that the UK (11th place), Canada (14th place), and the United States (18th place) are more tolerant than France ranking at 23rd place.
Part of the problem of France’s intolerance towards its minorities lies in its secondary education system. The French education system tends to glorify France's history while minimizing its legacy of colonialism and oppression. Such a set-up creates an uncomfortable feeling of identity for French minorities. Furthermore, contrary to North America, ethnic cultural studies are non-existent in France's secondary education. Such an education ecosystem creates a cultural rift between the majority culture and the minority multi-ethnic culture. A rift that the far-right has been able to exploit to its advantage.
6- France’s Secular Fundamentalism vs SecularismToday, France’s version of secularism (Laïcité) is borderline 'secular fundamentalism'. This form of secularism is defined in the urban dictionary as:
“The adherence to anti-religious ideology that militantly ridicules, mocks, scorns and satirizes the idea of the existence of a deity or deities and or religion, indifferent of feelings of bigotry intolerance hatred and persecution that adherents feel as a result.”
France’s secularism embodied by the spirit of Voltaire differ greatly from the Anglophones’ secularism embodied by the spirit of John Locke. The former advocates for State freedom from religious influence while the latter advocates for State liberal toleration towards religion. The two contrasting philosophies explain why multiculturalism tends to thrive in countries like the US, Canada, UK, New Zealand, or Australia as compared to France.
Laïcité comes from the Latin word ‘laicus’ which means “of the people”. It is a republican social pact that defines a place for religion in society. However, many francophones who look up to France, have a hard time reconciling the version of Laïcité that France is perpetuating. The kind of secularism that French politicians and the public have been using to justify intolerance and exclusion. True Laïcité should not be used to justify xenophobic and racist intolerance towards a particular ethnic minority group.
If there is one model of Laïcité that France should learn from is of its former colony Senegal. At the time of colonization, Senegal became the primary French base in West Africa. The West African nation’s secularism was heavily influenced by France’s concept of secularism with a strong sense of civil society; a tradition that has been maintained since its 1960 independence. Senegal is a vibrant democracy with 20 ethnic groups and has a predominantly Muslim population (about 94%). The Christian population represents 5% while other beliefs represent 1%. It is a country that respects and tolerates different religions and faiths. For instance, Senegal’s first President Leopold Sedar Senghor was a Catholic who ruled the country for 20 years. His successor Abdou Diouf is a Muslim married to a Christian wife. Diouf's son is a Muslim married to a Jewish wife. Abdou Diouf’s successor, Abdoulaye Wade is a Muslim married to a French Christian wife. Furthermore, Senegal recognizes both Muslim and Christian holidays as national holidays. So, religious, cultural and ethnic tolerance has been part of the DNA of Senegal.
Contrary to France, Senegal’s secularism can be described as a hybrid between the French and Anglo-Saxon models of secularism. On the one hand, the secular state maintains a separation between religious and governmental institutions, and on the other hand, it allows religious and non-religious institutions to try to influence the government, without ever threatening the nation’s peaceful coexistence among various faiths. In this context, Senegal’s form of secularism is used as a political instrument for the social control of religion while ensuring the freedom and protection of religion against persecution, abuse, and public bigotry.
Conclusion: What Secularism Should Be and Should Not Be?Secularism should not be used as an ideology to force people to assimilate or place a ban on a person’s freedom to wear religious symbols or clothes in public, in the same way, that it is practiced in authoritarian regimes like China where religious persucution and cultural genocide is taking place, or in countries with sharia law where the State forces the wearing of hijabs. Instead, secularism should be a political principle that embraces and values all faiths, and provides the freedom of choice to all individuals.
Secularism should not be used as an excuse to perpetuate xenophobic attacks and bigotry on minorities, but instead should be used as a platform to promote tolerance of multiculturalism and diversity. Freedom of expression does not justify in any way whatsoever the attack of a person's faith or identity. Doing so is boderline hate speech that incites hatred against a particular group likely to lead to a breach of community peace.
French Aristoricrat Alexis de Tocqueville, one of the most influential political thinker behind American democracy spoke about the danger of the tyranny of the majority. The greatest danger Tocqueville saw was that public opinion would become an all-powerful force, and that the majority could tyrannize unpopular minorities and marginal individuals. Looking today, this is what is currently taking place in France again.
The conclusion is that France’s aggressive and fundamentalist version of secularism compounded with decades of stigmatization and marginalization of minorities has contributed to the radicalization of French Muslim youths, who then turn to terrorism. France should learn from the Anglo-Saxon model and Francophone models such as Senegal. Until France frees itself from denialism and takes minorities seriously in terms of cultural tolerance, ethnic identity recognition and socio-economic inclusion, France will continue to remain a country in crisis and in decline.
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